How does a twenty-first century arts institution find that equilibrium between what Matthew Arnold defines as “the best that has been thought and said,” and “the property of an educated elite… which involves intellect and study,” with a more populist approach. After all, “the majority of the audience for culture consists of “omnivores” who have both traditional and popular forms of culture on their menu and alternate between them.” As further noted in the Compendium: Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe: The Netherlands, “A strict division between the state domain and the commercial market …[is] no longer realistic.” Rick Van der Ploeg, Professor of Economics University of Cambridge and Fellow of European Economic Association further stressed,
“Subsidy should … be used to get a grip on the cultural market, in order to make artistically high value performances more popular, and utterances of popular culture better in the sense of a more artistic content. Cultural entrepreneurship would open up possibilities to reach a multicultural or similarly diversified audience.”
Rick Van der Ploeg, “Compendium: Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe” 
What is Cultural entrepreneurship? The Global Center for Cultural Entrepreneurship defines it as: “commercial ventures that connect creators and artists to markets and consumers. They create, produce and market cultural goods and services, generating economic, cultural and social opportunities for creators while adding cultural value for consumers.” This entrepreneurship shifts the cultural sector’s focus on “the commercial techniques needed to develop new audiences and generate independent sources of income.” One celebrated example of this is the Detroit Symphony (DSO). Led by world-renowned conductor, Leonard Slatkin, along with its president and CEO, Anne Parsons, and its players, the DSO has been “working to reinvent what it means to be a symphony orchestra in 21st century America, convincing new audiences that such an institution is an essential part of a city’s personality.” In the past few years, DSO’s musicians have played everywhere from high school auditoriums in blue-collar suburbs, to a Salvation Army rehab center on the city’s southwest side. In June 2010, the symphony performed a concert at Orchestra Hall that included Bernard Herrmann’s nightmarish score for the movie, Psycho.
“As a wildly mixed audience of T-shirted kids, goateed hipsters and larking baby boomers watched Janet Leigh’s shower scene, the orchestra’s string section provided the movie’s signature series of jagged shrieks with a way-better-than-Dolby vividness.”
Also important in DSO’s outreach endeavors is its 18th annual free “Concert of Colors” – a musical celebration of metro Detroit’s cultural diversity presented by a partnership of the Arab American National Museum, New Detroit, Detroit Symphony Orchestra, ACCESS and the Detroit Institute of Arts. One feature of the celebration: the symphony recently gave a concert at the Matrix Human Services Center, a former church in northeastern Detroit. The audience was a collection of approximately seventy residents of one of the city’s poorest neighborhoods, all of them African American, many of them “confronted with classical music for the first time.”
“If it seemed like an awfully small audience for a performance led by one of the U.S.’s best-known conductors, the loud clapping and hearty cheering suggested that such music might have a future in Detroit after all…”
Okrent, “And the Band Played On.” 
These tactics mirror those of the Berlin Philharmonic, a continent away. While the Berlin Philharmonic is not currently struggling financially, its mission is undoubtedly influenced by the need to draw new audiences while eschewing the Western ethnocentric programming that frequently begets an elitist label. For the 2010 – 2011 season, programming themes address Hungarian Music, while Zukunft@BPhil, Berlin Philharmonic’s educational program, promises an “Alla Turca” chamber music series which “offers an intercultural dialogue in the form of workshops for entire families and other young people.” Another project is “Coro,” described by its creator, Luciano Berio – an experimental Italian composer — as “an anthology of different modes of ‘setting to music.’ “ School students, as well as adults from different areas of Berlin, will create text collages reflecting their own particular cultural heritages. These will form the basis of an instrumental and choral composition focusing on the interaction, but also on the individualities of the participants to create a multi-layered whole.”
“It is like the plan for an imaginary city which is realised [sic] on different levels, which produces, assembles and unifies different things and persons, revealing their collective and individual characters, their distance, their relationships and conflicts within real and ideal borders.”
Like the tapestry that allows individual colors and textures to work together to form the whole without losing their individual characteristics, so does music inspire harmony, mutuality and cohesion rather than an amalgamation of cacophony. With this program, one can “…celebrate culture as a form of spontaneous, as well as deliberate, expression and as what is common to the people of a community or a region as opposed to what divides them.”
 As quoted in Hamilton, “Scruton’s Philosophy of Culture: Elitism, Populism, and Classic Art “.
 Bína, “Compendium: Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe: The Netherlands,” 8.2.1 page N 49
 Ibid, 4.1.
 Global Center for Cultural Entrepreneurship: http://culturalentrepreneurship.org/page1/page1.html
 Hagoort, “Cultural Entrepreneurship: On the Freedom to Create Art and the Freedom of Enterprise.”
 Okrent, “And the Band Played On.”
 Kim Silarski, “Concert of Colors Expands,” in Detroit All-Star Revue returns with more local greats, ed. Aaron Barndollar (Detroit2010).
 Okrent, “And the Band Played On.”
 “Alla Turca” is an Italian phrase which translates to “Everything Turkish”
 Stefan Dohr, “Musikfest Berlin 10,” ed. Berliner Philharmoniker (Berlin2010).
 Luciano Berio as quoted in Ibid.
 Williams, “Culture Is Ordinary.”
I recently encountered a situation typical among performing arts organizations: a PR and advertising department billing itself as a marketing department, obtaining
great press coverage for noteworthy events, but missing the larger picture of developing loyal, long-term fans. Understanding the differences between PR and Marketing and the importance of ‘branding’ are critical to performing arts organizations’ success, especially in the not-for-profit realm. Certainly, advertising helps build brand awareness but it is consistent brand experience – developed by institutional marketing as expressed by the mission that helps sustain the organization, which in turns, aids fund-raising along with audience and organizational development. As Philip Kotler, the marketing guru and author of Marketing Management among dozens of other textbooks and books, said, “Brands are not built by advertising but by the brand experience.” Performing Arts organizations that focus all ‘marketing’ efforts on selling tickets to specific performances are ignoring brand building and missing important opportunities.
Marketing is defined by the American Marketing Association (AMA) as “the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.” Advertising, however, is “The paid, public, non-personal [my italics] presentation, promotion or announcement of a persuasive message by an identified sponsor to its existing and potential customers.
While similar, the difference between the two lies in the emphasis: marketing is about providing something of value to the customer; whereas advertising is impersonal and focused on advancing the generic value as defined by the promoter. As David Meerman Scott writes in his excellent book, “The New Rules of Marketing and PR,” “Marketing must shift their thinking from the mainstream marketing to the masses to a strategy of reaching vast numbers of underserved audiences via the web.”
This is why understanding and incorporating social media into the marketing mix has become so important, especially to cultural organizations seeking to engage younger demographics. Social media promotes the brand, which in turn, encourages interaction.
Alex Fleming, marketing director at the Lyric Hammersmith in London points out, “…it’s hard to say that contact via social media has got us ‘x’ more ticket sales, but our audiences are definitely talking about us and through these conversations there’s more awareness of our work.” This awareness is branding. And branding is marketing.
 Philip Kotler, Marketing Insights from A to Z: 80 Concepts Every Manager Needs to Know, 2003
 “AMA Definition of Marketing.” American Marketing Association.
http://www.marketingpower.com/AboutAMA/Pages/DefinitionofMarketing.aspx. Retrieved 2012-4-7
 Elizabeth Davis, Embracing social media, The Stage, November 19, 2010 ,
- Create a One page Fact Sheet. (see below for link to an example) This sheet should include relevant information about your organization in a clean, neat, easy-to-read way. Make sure you include:
- Name, address & contact information
- Size of venue (if appropriate)
- Mission Statement
- History Highlights
- Upcoming projects
- Prepare a Press Kit / EPK (Electronic Press Kit) – organized into a presentation folder. Include:
- Sample brochures from current season
- Copies of best press
- DVD or thumb drive with select performance highlights
- Organizational promotion video (no more than 3 minutes, professionally produced)
- Wikipedia Page:
- Do you have one? If yes – do you maintain it regularly? Enlist volunteers or long-time board members to assist
- If you don’t have a Wikipedia page – you absolutely should! This is free web real estate perfect for you to archive your history. As a matter of fact, Wikipedia wants you – it has recently begun an initiative to expand its article entries related to Culture and the Arts.
- For a list of all performing arts topics currently sought, see:
- For theaters, see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject_Theatre
- Social Media: Curate your Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube pages :
** A future article will focus on Social Media Best Practices Strategies for Performing Arts organizations, but you can begin by making sure you:
- Have both a Facebook Fan Page and a Twitter Account
- Start collecting Fans and “Likes”
- Cross-brand across Social Media platforms
- Also consider: YouTube, Flickr, and Pinterest
- Create an electronic newsletter. (There are a number of programs at various price points with a variety of features. Check out: Constant Contact, MailChimp, Patron Mail, etc.)
- Do not send more than every other week
- Do NOT only share “Big News.” Write about activities that highlight your organizations leadership in the field – so search engines pick up your activities more readily.
- Should be informative about your activities with links for donations, ticket purchases, interesting articles about the organization and / or related interests.
- Try to include something fun: a restaurant review, a coupon for free parking, a trivia contest, etc.
- Include institutional donors on your email blast list
Historically, Art and Culture have been the purview of the elite. Who else had the time and resources? The grand works of Renaissance were created at the behest of rich families such as the Medicis; musical compositions were commissioned by the Aristocracy. It was only during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, with the advent of the Industrial Age and a shift in the Western World from monarchies to democracies, that a new, urban elite arose with the time and financial wherewithal to establish and support new cultural institutions such as opera houses and concert halls.”
In the twentieth century, the leisure time available to much of the population of the Western World rose exponentially. Paralleling this was the rise of new expressions of culture, many of which supplanted the traditional: musical theater replaced opera, movies replaced theater, television replaced movies… With each wave of technological advances, new art forms emerged. Yet, our definitions of what constitutes Art and Culture have not evolved. Writing in the late 1950s, Raymond Williams, who along with Richard Hoggart, E.P. Thompson, and Stuart Hall initiated the intellectual movement in the U.K. that became known around the world as Cultural Studies, challenged “the traditional maneuver by which the gentry has privileged itself as the custodian of culture, thereby denying the possibility of a working-class culture.” More recently, Andy Hamilton, who concurs with R. Williams, argues “elitism is the denial of populism, in a central sense of that term — the sense which rejects the possibility of better judgment in moral, aesthetic, and cultural matters.” Dr. Ronald H.A. Plasterk — whose “Art for Life’s Sake,” is the treatise on which much of current Dutch Cultural Policy is based — furthers the argument, by quoting a 1939 source that adds, “From this perspective, the arts are no longer barricaded within the boundaries of a museum or concert hall, but can be found on the streets, in a random building, in a simple utensil…”
So, if “Art and Culture” is ordinary, in the sense that it “…is not a collection of special objects locked away in a museum,” what is it? Surely, that is the crux of the argument – for if the goal is to save “Art and Culture” – we must define what “Art and Culture” is. Can any object be called Art simply because the creator says it is? Or instead, does ‘high culture’ refer solely to traditional Western European ideas of art, literature, etc.? On the other hand, Balinese gamelan inﬂuenced Debussy; African art inspired Picasso. Ever since Marco Polo brought silk back from the Far East, and certainly even more so in the twentieth century, “examples of cultural transmission are legion,” and should serve to remind us “how porous high culture is, in both directions, and how symbiotic the existence of all cultures is, especially in the globalised world.” And yet while many a twenty-first century elitist would easily identify a Picasso as “Art,” would he or she do the same for African sculpture? Western definitions of Art and Culture reek of Cultural ethnocentrism; just as the use of the Dutch word “allochtoon” — long used in the Netherlands to describe people of non-western origin – implies a racist sort of ‘tolerance’ which masks a profoundly myopic approach to multiculturalism, so too does the Western definition of “Art and Culture.” “The notion of high culture in the western tradition embodies everything that is exclusive of other cultures and elitist within its own.”
The only remedy, then, is to redefine Art and Culture to embrace grander notions. Certainly publications such as The New York Times now regularly cover all manner of music, dance and visual arts — including film and television. As arts administrators, our definitions of what constitutes “ART” must expand or our institutions will become obsolete.
 From Daniel Boorstin, The Creators, a Histories of Heroes of the Imagination, Random House, 1992, as cited by Professor Dr. Giep Hagoort, “Cultural Entrepreneurship: On the Freedom to Create Art and the Freedom of Enterprise,” in Research Group Art & Economics, ed. Utrecht University (Utrecht, The Netherlands: Utrecht School of the Arts, 2007).
 Raymond Williams, “Culture Is Ordinary,” Resources of Hope (1958).
 Hamilton, “Scruton’s Philosophy of Culture: Elitism, Populism, and Classic Art “.
 Emanuel Boekman, Overheid en kunst in Nederland, 1939, as quoted in Dr. Ronald H.A. Plasterk, “Art for Life’s Sake: Dutch Cultural Policy in Outline,” (Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, 2008).
 Williams, “Culture Is Ordinary.”
 AC Grayling, “A Question of Discrimination,” The Guardian, July 13 2002.
 Hamilton, “Scruton’s Philosophy of Culture: Elitism, Populism, and Classic Art “.
 Grayling, “A Question of Discrimination.”
As defined in Encarta® World English Dictionary, ‘the elite’ refers to “a small group of people within a larger group who have more power, social standing, wealth, or talent than the rest of the group.” Throughout most of history, these signs of status were enviable; in the twenty-first century, however, the label ‘elite’ is an insult. As Susan Jacoby, author of “The Age of American Unreason” further elucidates, “When the words ‘intellectual’ or ‘elite’ are invoked, they mean ‘liberal,’ and they’re code words for ‘this person is not one of the people.’”
Unfortunately, in recent times this label has also tainted the allure of culture and the arts, forming what one writer calls “barrier elitism” – the ‘barrier’ being a specialist language, the extravagant cost involved, or even “proper ways of behaving that an outsider doesn’t automatically grasp.” Anti-elitism ensues, where opera-goers are no longer music lovers but publicly subsidized “toffs” and “philistines” and visiting a museum stops being an artistic pilgrimage, but the elitists’ “worthless way of passing their time … [a] vulgar pleasure.” Art and Culture are now relegated to the realm of “… the pretentious language, the snobby associations, the high cost…” Ironically, this occurs despite numerous – and sometimes even desperate — attempts to educate, become more populist and minimize costs. Even in The Netherlands, where entrance to all state-funded museums is covered by a 35 euros / year culture card and student tickets are available for 5 euros, culture is deemed ‘elitist.’ Fears abound throughout the Western World that the world’s symphonies, opera companies and other classical forms of art are dying, as governments in Europe from England, France and even the Netherlands and Germany are revisiting national cultural policies, seeking ways to cut back on the large government subsidies that have traditionally supported the Arts. As one attendee at a recent meeting of world-renowned orchestras tweeted, “Anyone else at #Orch2010 catch the irony of including a performance of the Verdi Requiem in the conference?”
In an effort to remain relevant and survive in the financially uncertain ‘Era of the Anti-Elite,’ museums and performing arts organizations are struggling to draw new audiences by experimenting with new technology, outreach enterprises and guerilla marketing while balancing so-called “High Culture” with populist demands. Some argue this seemingly commercialistic approach belies the very nature of “High Culture,” as “it is through the culture of a civilization — the art and literature – that allows it to rise to consciousness of itself and defines its vision of the world.”  That said, even Roger Scruton, a self-confessed elitist for whom ‘culture’ is something which “opens the hearts, minds and senses of those who possess it to an intellectual and artistic patrimony,” and defines culture as “the accumulation of art, literature, and humane reflection that has stood the test of time and established a continuing tradition of reference and allusion,” qualifies his elitism by adding, “Although an elite product, its [culture’s] meaning lies in emotions and aspirations that are common to all.” So how can contemporary society contend with this apparent contradiction? Is Art elitist? And if it is, can it also be, as Philippe de Montebello, the former unabashed elitist director of the Metropolitan Museum of Art claims, the kind of elitism that ‘… is not only compatible with democracy, [but] the very essence of democracy, in that it seeks to bring as many people as possible to a higher level of understanding and appreciation.” These arguments imply one obvious conclusion – Art as the ultimate paradox: the “creation and creator of elites” that is also “…an inclusive rather than an exclusive concept,” at once “democratizing and anti-elitist.” The trick for Cultural Organizations, then, is finding those bridges between the people and Art, between Higher Appreciation and pop culture. Successful organizations across the globe are learning that these bridges come in three forms: educational outreach, cultural entrepreneurialism and a new approach to what exactly defines Art and Culture.
It is my intention to bring to light the many ways various Performing Arts and Cultural institutions across the globe are tackling these issues.
 Encarta® World English Dictionary
 Judith Warner, “Egghead Alert,” The New York Times, July 11 2010.
 John Armstrong, “Elite, Elitist,” theage.com.au, August 16 2004.
 The Guardian, 10 November 1997 as quoted in Sarah Zalfen, “The Crisis of Culture,” International Journal of Cultural Policy 13, no. 3 (2007).
 35 euros is worth about $43 in the summer of 2010. In addition, “All secondary school pupils will receive a cultural card with an annual budget of 15 euros, for free entry to museums, theatre, concerts or film.” Mrs. Ineke van Hamersvel and Mr. Vladimir Bína, “Compendium: Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe: The Netherlands,” ed. Culture and Science. Ministry of Education (Amsterdam & The Hague: European Union, ERICarts, 2008).
 Since 1999, the proportion of traditional culture “on the menu” of secondary school and university students in The Netherlands has ‘declined dramatically.” Ibid.
 Michael Kimmelman, “In Europe, the Arts Ask for Alms,” New York Times, January 21 2010.
 As quoted by Daniel Okrent, “And the Band Played On,” Time Magazine, July 5 2010.
 Andy Hamilton, “Scruton’s Philosophy of Culture: Elitism, Populism, and Classic Art ” The British Journal of Aesthetics 49, no. no. 4 (2009).
 As quoted in Ibid.
 Calvin Tomkins, “The Importance of Being Elitist,” The New Yorker, November 24 1997.
 R. Scruton, Culture Counts: Faith and Feeling in a World Besieged (New York: Encounter Books, 2007), as quoted in Hamilton, “Scruton’s Philosophy of Culture: Elitism, Populism, and Classic Art “.
 Tomkins, “After Twenty Years at the Helm, Philippe De Montebello Wants the Met to Keep Pulling in Crowds—but Not If It Has to Become a Theme Park..”
 David Hesmondhalgh & Andy C. Pratt, “Cultural Industries and Cultural Policy ” International Journal of Cultural Policy 11, no. 1 (2005).